Silver and its nanoparticles (AgNPs) have different faces, providing different applications. In recent years, the number of positive nanosilver applications has increased substantially. It has been proven that AgNPs inhibit the growth and survival of bacteria, including human and animal pathogens, as well as fungi, protozoa and arthropods. Silver nanoparticles are known from their antiviral and anti-cancer properties; however, they are also very popular in medical and pharmaceutical nanoengineering as carriers for precise delivery of therapeutic compounds, in the diagnostics of different diseases and in optics and chemistry, where they act as sensors, conductors and substrates for various syntheses. The activity of AgNPs has not been fully discovered; therefore, we need interdisciplinary research to fulfil this knowledge. New forms of products with silver will certainly find application in the future treatment of many complicated and difficult to treat diseases. There is still a lack of appropriate and precise legal condition regarding the circulation of nanomaterials and the rules governing their safety use. The relatively low toxicity, relative biocompatibility and selectivity of nanoparticle interaction combined with the unusual biological properties allow their use in animal production as well as in bioengineering and medicine. Despite a quite big knowledge on this topic, there is still a need to organize the data on AgNPs in relation to specific microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses or fungi. We decided to put this knowledge together and try to show positive and negative effects on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.